women age 12 and older reported ever using alcohol, while 60%
reported past year use and 45.1% reported using alcohol in the
white women reported ever using alcohol, while 65% reported
past year use and 49.7% reported using alcohol in the past month.1
black women reported ever using alcohol, while 45.1% reported
past year use and 32.3% reported using alcohol in the past month.1
Hispanic women reported ever using alcohol, while 48.4% reported
past year use and 33.6% reported using alcohol in the past month.1
female drinkers, 7.16% of whites, 10.22% of blacks, 22.16% of
American Indians/Alaska Native, and 9.03% of Hispanics reported
women reported different levels of alcohol involvement. 58.7%
of men age 12 and older reported past month alcohol use compared
to 45.1% of women, while 23.2% of men age 12 and older reported
binge drinking in the past month compared to 8.6% of women.3
and metabolize alcohol differently than men.4
the mean lifetime dose of alcohol in female alcoholics is only
60% of that in male alcoholics, one study noted that cardiomyopathy
(a degenerative disease of the heart muscle) and myopathy (a
degenerative disease of skeletal muscle) was as common in female
alcoholics as in males. The study concluded that women are more
susceptible than men to the toxic effects of alcohol on the
in men and women was found to be similar despite significantly
shorter periods of alcohol exposure or drinking histories in
chronic pancreatitis have shorter drinking histories than that
of men. Women with alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis were found
to have consumed less alcohol per body weight per day than men.
These findings indicate that women are more vulnerable to alcoholic
liver disease than men.7
alcohol problems are more common in male trauma patients, women
with alcohol problems are just as severely impaired, have at
least as many adverse consequences of alcohol use, and have
more evidence of alcohol-related physical and psychological
showed that 40% of alcoholic women attempted to commit suicide,
compared to 8.8% of non-alcoholic women.9
women who are alcoholics are nearly twice as likely to attempt
to commit suicide (50.5%) than older women who are alcoholics
of suicides among females in New Mexico found that 65.5% of
the decedents had alcohol or drugs present in their blood at
the time of autopsy.10
the Dietary Guidelines for Americans have stated that
women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant should
not drink alcohol.
survey found that 58.8% of women age 15-44 drank while pregnant.11
pregnant women in their first trimester reported using alcohol,
while 56.6% of women in their second trimester and 53.9% of
women in their third trimester reported alcohol use.11
female victims of intimate violence (i.e., current or former
spouses, boyfriends, etc.) reported that the offender had been
drinking at the time of the offense.
female victims of alcohol-related violence reported experiencing
some form of injury.
4 in 10 women committing violence were perceived by the victim
as being under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs at the
time of the crime.
25% of women on probation, 29% of women in local jails, 29%
of women in state prisons, and 15% of women in federal prisons
had been consuming alcohol at the time of the offense.
less likely than men to be involved in fatal alcohol-related
crashes. However, from 1977 to 1997 the number of male drivers
involved in alcohol-related fatal traffic crashes decreased
31%, while the number of females drivers involved in alcohol-related
fatal crashes has increased 12%.
is defined as no more than one drink per day for women.
is 12 ounces of regular beer, 5 ounces of wine, and 1.5 ounces
of 80-proof distilled spirits.
1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
(1999). National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Population Estimates
1998. DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 99-3327. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department
of Health and Human Services.
2. National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (1998). Drinking
in the United States: Main findings from the 1992 National Longitudinal
Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. NIH Publication No. 99-35198. Bethesda,
MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
3. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (1999).
Summary of Findings from the 1998 National Household Survey on Drug
Abuse. DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 99-3328. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department
of Health and Human Services.
4. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (1999). Are
women more vulnerable to alcohol effects? Alcohol Alert No. 46.
Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
5. Urbano-Marquez, Estruch, R., Fernandez-Sola, J. Nicolas, J. M.,
Pare, J. C., & Rubin, E. (1995). The greater risk of alcoholic
cardiomyopathy and myopathy in women compared with men. Journal
of the American Medical Association, 274(2): 149-154.
6. Mann, K., Batra, A., Gunthner, A., & Schroth, G. (1992).
Do women develop alcoholic brain damage more readily than men? Alcohol
Clin Exp Res, 16(6):1052-6.
7. Mezey, E., Kolman, C. J., Diehl, A. M., Mitchell, M. C., &
Herlong, H. F. (1988). Alcohol and dietary intake in the development
of chronic pancreatitus and liver disease in alcoholism. American
Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 48(1):148-51.
8. Gentilello, L. M., Rivara, F. P., Donovan, D. M., Villaveces,
A., Daranciang, E., Dunn, C. W., & Ries. R. R. (2000). Alcohol
problems in women admitted to a level I trauma center: A gender-based
comparison. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical
9. Lisansky-Gomberg, E. S. (1989). Suicide Risk Among Women with
Alcohol Problems. American Journal or Public Health, 79(10):1363-1365.
10. Olson, L., Huyler, F., Lynch, A. A., Fullerton, L., Werenko,
D., Sklar, D., & Zumwalt, R. (1999). Guns, alcohol, and intimate
violence: The epidemiology of female suicide in New Mexico. Crisis,
11. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (1998).
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Statistics Source Book, 1998.
DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 98-3170. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department
of Health and Human Services.
12. Greenfeld, L. A. (1998). Alcohol and crime: An analysis of national
data on the prevalence of alcohol involvement in crime. Washington,
DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
13. Greenfeld, L. A., & Snell, T. L. (1999). Women Offenders.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice.
14. Yi, H., Stinson, F. S., Williams, G. D., & Bertolucci, D.
(1999). Trends in alcohol-related fatal traffic crashes United States,
1975-97. Surveillance Report #49. Bethesda, MD: National Institute
on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
15. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2000. United States Department(s)
of Agriculture and Health and Human Services.
[Booze News] [CSPI Home Page]