FASlink Fetal
                Alcohol Disorders Society

Table of Contents

Introduction to FASD  
Report on FASD - Exposure Rates, Results of Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol, and Incidence Markers - Bruce Ritchie - February 2, 2007

37% of babies have been exposed to multiple episodes of binge drinking (5+ drinks per session) during pregnancy. An additional 42% have been multiply exposed to 1 to 4 drinks per session during pregnancy. It is probable that about 15% of children are significantly enough affected by prenatal alcohol exposure to require special education.

Introduction to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (PDF)

Presentation to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, Standing Committee on Social Policy, Bill 118, Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act, 2004, London, February 3, 2005.
FASlink presentation, streaming video: Issues : Bruce Ritchie for High Speed or Dial-up
Recommendations: Kathy Lewis for Dial-up
.
Hansard Transcript of presentation
Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act, 2005 (now law)

Don't Ask My Child to Fly Poem by Bruce Ritchie
Background discussion
of the meaning behind each stanza.
FASlink PowerPoint FASD Presentation

FASD presentation by Bruce Ritchie. If you have the PowerPoint Viewer on your computer, simply click on Open in the next screen. If not, you can
Download PowerPoint 2007 Viewer (Works with Windows 2000, XP and Vista)

Medical Conditions Chart There are a large number of medical condition that can be caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. This chart lists some of them.
FAS Physical Abnormalities Prof.Dr.med. Hermann Löser (Germany)
Effects of Alcohol as a Teratogen on the Baby Chart showing parts of the body that are affected at various stages of pregnancy.
Original link
Meconium assays detect maternal alcohol consumption during the final 20 weeks of pregnancy.

"It is estimated that up to 20% of women consume alcohol regularly while pregnant". Meconium is the first fecal excretion from the newborn baby. GC/MS Meconium assays can detect Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters that act as a biomarker of maternal alcohol consumption during the final 20 weeks of pregnancy. Studies by United States Drug Testing Laboratories using the Avitar MecStat-ETOH meconium testing for FAEE's that have shown 15% to 18% of newborns have been exposed to significant levels of alcohol in the final 20 weeks with 4% having been exposed to very high levels of alcohol. "Neonatal Screening for Prenatal Alcohol Exposure - The Grey Bruce Study" by Joey Gareri, HBSc, MSc student confirms that 4% of infants were exposed to very high levels. The lower level incidence was not reported. See also "Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters in meconium: An emerging biomarker for in utero alcohol exposure". - Joey Gareri, Graduate Student, Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto.

"Formic Acid in the Drinking patient and the expectant mother"
The use of high levels of Folic Acid was found to inhibit brain damage.

Dr. Bhushan Kapur. Methanol in small amounts is present along with ethanol in beverage alcohol. The body's natural enzymes preferentially metabolize ethanol while methanol breaks down into highly neurotoxic Formic Acid. Use of high levels of Folic Acid was found to inhibit brain damage caused by the methanol. The use of Folic Acid during pregnancy has been recommended for several years to prevent neural tube defects. However, this study indicates that even higher levels of Folic Acid can be very benifical to the developing baby, particularly where alcohol exposure is a factor. Folic Acid is mandated as an additive to all flour sold in Canada. The debate has begun on its required addition to all beverage alcohol to help mitigate damage caused to both infants and adults.

Research Investigating Effects of Alcohol and Developing Brain Cells

Original link

Research Investigating Effects of Alcohol and Developing Brain Cells
Even brief exposures to small amounts of alcohol may kill brain cells in a developing fetus. A study carried out by John Olney, M.D., at the Washington School of Medicine in St. Louis showed that just two drinks consumed during pregnancy may be enough to kill some developing brain cells, leading to permanent brain damage. Nerve cells will die if they fail to make synaptic connections in time. Drinking alcohol can interfere with the formation of these connections. Addiction Biology 2004 Jun;9(2):137-49
Twitches that indicate alcohol may hurt baby
Video of ultrasound image.
Twitches that indicate alcohol may hurt baby - Jonathon Carr-Brown and Martyn Halle
Video of ultrasound image. Just one glass of wine a week can make babies jump in the womb throughout a nine-month pregnancy. The Sunday Times - Britain - November 20, 2005
Comparison chart of the effects of drugs on prenatal development Prenatal alcohol exposure seems to have a more devastating long-lasting effect on the child than other street drugs.
Alcohol: Global Burden on Health Similar to Tobacco and High Blood Pressure - Lancet 04 Feb 2005 The amount of death and disability caused by alcohol globally is similar to that caused by tobacco and high blood pressure, concludes a review in this week's issue of The Lancet. Overall, four percent of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, 4•1% to tobacco and 4•4% to high blood pressure. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions, including breast cancer and coronary heart disease. In most cases alcohol has a detrimental effect on health. 
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Author and former pediatric nurse, Linda Checky, BSN, RN, MBA, is the Assistant Program Manager for TCHP Education Consortium.
Excellent teaching tool for professionals. 25 pages. Continuing Education This learning activity has been designed to meet the Minnesota Board of Nursing continuing education requirements. A total of two and one-half (2.5) contact hours may be obtained by completing this independent learning program. (PDF format)
Which Person Has Brain Damage From Prenatal
Alcohol Exposure?
Poster in PDF format.Test yourself.
National Geographic Magazine - February 1992 - VOL 181, No.2.
"The world as they see it" by George Steinmetz

Better Endings. New Beginnings. - Jodee Kulp's excellent website

The Language of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

SAMHSA Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Center for Excellence
FAS/FAE Cycle: With/without Early Identification Diane B. Malbin, M.S.W.
Hope for the Child with FASD M.F. Murphy - The FAS/FAE child is not a hopeless case, he/she is simply a nowhere child, never quite fitting into any setting. The children already in our schools and the ones that are yet to arrive can learn and we need to offer them an environment and educational program which will insure that they do learn.
What it's like to live with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD, ADHD) by Edward M. Hallowell, M.D.
Attention Deficit Disorder. First of all I resent the term. As far as I'm concerned most people have Attention Surplus Disorder. I mean, life being what it is, who can pay attention to anything for very long?
Tips for living with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD, ADHD) by Edward M. Hallowell, M.D. and John J. Ratey, M.D.
The most important step at the beginning of treatment is to instill hope once again. Individuals with ADD may have forgotten what is good about themselves.
Cell suicide - Apoptosis A single exposure to high levels of ethanol (the alcohol in beer, wine and spirits) can kill nerve cells in the developing brain.
Fertile Minds


From birth, a baby's brain cells proliferate wildly, making connections that may shape a lifetime of experience. The first three years are critical. - J. Madelaine Nash

The history of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Spectrum Disorders

Peggy Seo Oba's extensive study of the history of FASD. From antiquity to present times, alcohol consumption during pregnancy has been known to affect the baby. Why has it only been relatively recently that it has been given a name?
Original and most up-to-date:

Public Health Agency of Canada - Frequently Asked Questions about FASD (PDF)

Original HTML and PDF

Brain Facts Brain Facts. A primer on the brain and nervous system
Gene Involved In Brain Development Identified Astrotactin Is A Nerve's Ticket To Ride The Glial Highway
New Study Provides First Linkage Of Fetal Alcohol Exposure And Enlarged Heart
Adaptations to the fetal environment, which result in low birth weight, also program physiological and harmful changes in the adult. Cardiac malformations exist in children with fetal alcohol syndrome and animal models of prenatal alcohol exposure, and an enlarged heart (cardiac hypertrophy) has been found in children with fetal alcohol syndrome. The high incidence of heart defects indicates that alcoholism during pregnancy has to be considered as a serious and preventable cause of congenital heart disease.
Source: July 2003 edition of the American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism

Search the Faslink Archives

This facility is only available online.

The FASlink Archives are a searchable collection of more than 110,000 FASD related letters and articles. FASlink is a listserv Moderated by Bruce Ritchie. Members include biological, foster and adoptive parents and caregivers as well as a wide range of professionals including those in medicine, social work, education and justice. Our members also include a number of individuals who have FASD. They help us to see the world through their eyes, so that we can develop more effective strategies to help our children and others. FASlink's character has developed into a very supportive "family". It is a unique experience.

Diagnosing FASD

Canadian guidelines for diagnosis of FASD
Download PDF version

Canadian Medical Association Journal - Journal de l'Association médicale canadienne
Authored by Albert E. Chudley, Julianne Conry, Jocelynn L. Cook, Christine Loock, Ted Rosales and Nicole LeBlanc
New 'eye movement' test may help diagnose fetal alcohol syndrome
KINGSTON, Ont. A simple test that measures eye movement may help to identify children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and ultimately lead to improved treatment for the condition, say Queen's University researchers.

Recent MRI studies by Dr. Anne Streissguth comparing structural anomalies in the corpus callosa of FAS vs FAE individuals have shown the same level of brain injury, regardless of "facial markers". Over time, the facial markers of FAS may fall into the same disuse as Phrenology. FAS facial features are not fully reliable indicators of the nature and level of disabilities. This research could completely change the definitions of FAS, FAE, ARND, FASD, etc.

"Although we hypothesized that our image analysis methods would reveal significant mean differences in brain form between FAS/FAE and Controls, we were surprised to find that the most significant finding was a hypervariation of form of the Corpus Callosum (CC: a white matter pathway connecting the two hemispheres of the brain). Subjects with FAS and FAE had callosa that were generally thicker or thinner than control counterparts. In addition 3 of the subjects with FAS/FAE showed frank dysgenesis (incomplete development) of the corpus callosum. This study also found that there was a complete intermingling of (lack of discrimination between) the alcohol exposed subjects with and without the facial features of FAS in terms of representations of the shape of the CC. There was no difference in CC neuroanatomy between subjects with FAS and those with FAE or ARND."

"When the shape measurement of the Corpus Callosum was combined with results of neuropsychological testing, we found further surprising results. The variation in the shape of the corpus callosum was related to two specific patterns of neuropsychological performance. Those subjects with FAS/FAE whose callosa were thinner than controls demonstrated deficits in motor coordination but had relatively normal executive function abilities. Conversely, those subjects with FAS/FAE whose callosa were thicker than controls demonstrated relatively normal motor coordination but had deficits in executive function abilities." - Dr. Ann Streissguth, Principle Investigator

Canadian Paediatric Society on FAS This statement describes the diagnosis of FAS, partial or atypical FAS, alcohol-related birth defects and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Strategies for early identification of possible alcohol-related abnormalities are outlined.
USA - FAS Diagnostic and Referral Guidelines
Current FAS Diagnostic and Referral Guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control - CDC -

Responding to the Challenge
of Early Intervention for Fetal
Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

Heather Carmichael Olson, PhD; Tracy Jirikowic, PhD; Deborah Kartin, PhD; Susan Astley, PhD.

There is a growing body of research data describing the teratogenic effects of alcohol on central nervous system function and physical development, the diversity of children with prenatal alcohol exposure and their families, and the developmental and behavioral characteristics of this clinical population. This article reviews the latest research evidence, bearing in mind what is important to early intervention. This article also gives practical guidance on FASD prevention, methods for early screening, and referral of young children for diagnosis of FASD (and referral for needed services once diagnosed), and how to provide education, support, advocacy assistance, and anticipatory guidance for families raising children with FASD. Key words: early diagnosis and intervention, fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol-induced disorders (nervous systems), maternal exposure, teratogen

Health professionals' knowledge, practice and opinions about fetal alcohol syndrome and alcohol consumption in pregnancy. Research Report: Health professionals' knowledge, practice and opinions about fetal alcohol syndrome and alcohol consumption in pregnancy.
Results: Of 1,143 health professionals, 12% identified all four essential diagnostic features of FAS. Most (95%) had never diagnosed FAS. Although 82% believed that making a diagnosis of FAS might improve treatment plans and 85% agreed FAS was preventable, 53% said the diagnosis might be stigmatising. Only 2% felt very prepared to deal with FAS and most wanted information for themselves and their clients. Of the 659 health professionals caring for pregnant women, only 45% routinely ask about alcohol use in pregnancy, only 25% routinely provide information on the consequences of alcohol use in pregnancy and only 13% provide advice consistent with NHMRC guidelines on alcohol consumption in pregnancy.
Medical Conditions Chart There are a large number of medical condition that can be caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. This chart lists some of them.
Effects of Alcohol as a Teratogen on the Baby Chart showing parts of the body that are affected at various stages of pregnancy.
FAS Physical Abnormalities Prof.Dr.med. Hermann Löser (Germany)

Understanding Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders - Getting a Diagnosis

Because most people with FASD have no visible signs of alcohol exposure, their problems may be wrongly blamed on poor parenting or on other disorders. Early diagnosis and intervention contribute to positive long-term outcomes. The Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Center for Excellence is a project of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).

Assessment considerations for older children Written by the Follow Along Subcommittee of The Perinatal and Addiction Task Force of The Children's Hospital of Buffalo and New York State Division of Substance Abuse Services
FASD Related Alphabet Soup Codes Mary Horner

Professional Designations

Terminology of Medical Professionals' Degrees - Eleene Davis

Alcohol

Binge drinking in Canada

Frequency of drinking 5 or more drinks on one occasion in the last 12 months, by age group and sex, household population aged 12 and over who are current drinkers, Canada, 2000/01. Data source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2000/01. The definition of binge drinking in Canada has now been changed to 4 drinks per occasion.

U.S. definition of Binge Drinking

Estimating Blood Alcohol Level Understanding Blood Alcohol Level. Blood alcohol level (BAL) refers to the ratio of alcohol to blood in the bloodstream. It also accurately reflects the level of alcohol in the entire body. BAL, also known as blood alcohol concentration (BAC), is represented as a percentage.
The Disease of Alcoholism-Defined & Explained The Disease of Alcoholism-Defined & Explained. Alcoholism is a chemical/biological disease that is primary, progressive, chronic and fatal. It is characterized by an obsession to drink that makes it impossible to predict when we will start drinking, and an allergy to alcohol, which makes it impossible to predict when we will stop drinking.

Alcohol and illicit drug dependence

The prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug dependence is estimated. Relationships between alcohol and illicit drug use and depression are analyzed. Full article in PDF format - Supplement to Health Reports, Volume 15, 2004 - Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003

Disease of Alcoholism Chart
GIF screen view

PDF for printing

A detail view of the progression from social drinking through addiction to recovery or death. From Charter Peachford Hospital, Atlanta, GA
Supreme Court of Canada rules addiction is considered a disability
by Keith Lacey klacey@northernlife.ca

Even though alcoholism and drug addiction are clearly defined as disabilities under Ontario’s Human Rights Code, thousands of Ontarians have been denied disability benefits for substance abuse addictions. That has now changed following a Supreme Court of Canada ruling establishing that addiction is a disability under Canadian law.

Alcohol and the Human Body

Alcohol is a general term denoting a family of organic chemicals with common properties. Members of this family include ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, and others. This introduction discusses the physical, chemical, and physiological aspects of the most commonly ingested of these - ethanol. Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant and it is the central nervous system which is the bodily system that is most severely affected by alcohol (see chart below). The degree to which the central nervous system function is impaired is directly proportional to the concentration of alcohol in the blood.    

Teen Binge Drinking Can Do Long-Term Brain Damage By Amy Norton

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Mounting evidence shows that the still-maturing teenage brain is particularly susceptible to damage from heavy drinking. A number of recent studies have shown that teenagers who abuse alcohol have problems with memory, learning and other brain functions compared with their peers, while animal research suggests such effects could last into adulthood. Original article

Fact Sheet: Women and Alcohol Critical information
International Alcohol Rates Among Women Although it is difficult to say how many children in Europe have FAS or even FAE...one of the ways you can determine the prevalence of alcohol consumption among women and the seriousness of it is to look at the deaths due to alcohol related illnesses. by Peggy Seo Oba
How Much Alcohol Can a Woman Safely Drink During Pregnancy? List by Teresa Kellerman
Early pregnancy warnings Women in early pregnancy, and even those who are considering becoming pregnant should cut out cocktails, wine and beer completely, according to the results of a preliminary study on animals.

CDC Study - Alcohol Consumption Among Women Who Are Pregnant or Who Might Become Pregnant --- United States, 2002

-- with comments by Teresa Kellerman and Bruce Ritchie

To determine the alcohol consumption patterns among all women of childbearing age, including those who are pregnant or might become pregnant, CDC analyzed data for women aged 18--44 years from the 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey (5). The results of that analysis indicated that approximately 10% of pregnant women used alcohol, and approximately 2% engaged in binge drinking or frequent use of alcohol. The results further indicated that more than half of women who did not use birth control (and therefore might become pregnant) reported alcohol use and 12.4% reported binge drinking.

Meconium Testing - comments by Bruce Ritchie
Meconium is the first bowel movement by a newborn infant. The meconium based assay incorporates a panel of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters as bio-markers of maternal alcohol use during the last 20 weeks of pregnancy. Studies with the MecStat-EtOH assay (Avitar Technologies Inc., United States Drug Testing Laboratories) found fetal exposure to alcohol in 15-18% of newborns tested, approximately 4% of the newborns had elevated results. These results do not include those women who were drinking in the first trimester and quit when they discovered they were pregnant. People lie about their alcohol use.

Economics of Beverage Alcohol The beverage alcohol industry pays less far less than 1% of the total damages caused by their products. by Bruce Ritchie
Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts You’ll Never Hear from Big Booze
Alcohol one of 3 top killers in world

Alcohol: Global Burden on Health Similar to Tobacco and High Blood Pressure
04 Feb 2005

The amount of death and disability caused by alcohol globally is similar to that caused by tobacco and high blood pressure, concludes a review in The Lancet (Vol. 365 No. 9458, Feb. 5, 2005). Overall, four percent of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, 4.1% to tobacco and 4.4% to high blood pressure. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions, including breast cancer and coronary heart disease. In most cases alcohol has a detrimental effect on health.

WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol 2004

This volume is the culmination of three years of dedicated collaborative work of the WHO Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse and a WHO Collaborating Centre, the Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems in Lausanne, Switzerland. It is an overview of the available data on alcohol consumption and drinking patterns worldwide. It gives valuable new perspectives on the recent status of health and social consequences of alcohol use and levels and patterns of alcohol consumption worldwide. WHO_global_alcohol_status_report_2004.pdf

Warning Signs Now Law in Ontario

As of February 1, 2005, the Liquor Licence Act requires certain premises to post signs warning women that drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. The warning sign must be at least 8 by 10 inches in size. It must be prominently displayed in all locations where beverage alcohol is sold or where customers brew their own wine or beer for take home consumption. Failure to comply with the signage requirements is an offence under the Liquor Licence Act.

The following types of premises must post the warning sign:

  • Restaurants and bars licensed to sell beverage alcohol (wine, beer and spirits);
  • LCBO stores and other retail stores authorized to sell beverage alcohol
    (i.e., The Beer Store and wine, beer and spirits manufacturers’ stores); and
  • Licensed brew-on-premise facilities.

    This document provides the mandatory English sign referred to in Regulation 718, Subsection 26.1(1). The sign can be displayed in colour or black and white. A French sign may also be displayed in colour or in black and white.
    To download the warning sign, please click on one of the links below:
English sign:
Black and White
French sign:
Black and White
Alcohol and Public Health: The Implications of Changes to Ontario’s Beverage Alcohol System

Submission February 25, 2005 to the Beverage Alcohol System Review Panel by the following Ontario public health organizations: Addictions Ontario (AO); Association of Local Public Health Agencies (alPHa); Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH); Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD Canada); Ontario Drug Awareness Partnership (ODAP); Ontario Public Health Association (OPHA); Parent Action on Drugs (PAD); Toronto Public Health.

Alcohol is a drug that causes about as much harm as tobaco. It is linked to more than 60 medical conditions and imposes a heavy burden on public health and finances. Alcohol should not be sold as an ordinary commodity. Recent public discourse on alcohol has focused on increasing government revenues and has largely overlooked public health impacts. Public health and safety issues deserve to be at the forefront in a balanced review of beverage alcohol policy. The Ontario review should, as a guiding principle, seek to improve, not mortgage, public health and safety. Alcohol policy research has come of age, and now provides governments a toolkit of policy options that research show to be effective in reducing alcohol-related problems. Policies that increase alcohol consumption generally lead to higher levels of public harm, while policies that decrease consumption reduce harm. Relying on public education and persuasion alone is not effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. Among the most effective policies to reduce alcohol problems are:

  • maintaining public alcohol retail monopolies with a strong duty of social responsibility, and
  • increasing alcohol taxes.
A timeline of prohibition and liquor legislation in Canada 1870s: Canada is in economic depression, but alcohol is a flourishing industry. Toronto has approximately one bar for every 150 residents and Montreal boasts a bar per 70 citizens. They sell Caribbean rum and locally brewed whisky for high profits. Drink becomes responsible for acts of disorderly conduct, and city jailhouses fill with people charges with intemperance, the act of excessive drinking.......
It's Drugs, Alcohol and Tobacco, Stupid! As the new generation of political leaders in Washington, state capitals and city halls grapples with America's collapsing judicial systems, rising medical costs, persistent poverty amid plenty and the defiant federal budget deficit that looms over future generations, they confront the same 800pound gorilla: drug, alcohol and tobacco abuse and addiction. The sooner these leaders see how substance abuse has fundamentally changed the nature of the pressing social and economic problems they face, the sooner they'll deal with them effectively.
The Five Million Dollar Baby
Chris Kellerman
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a negative externality with costs that reach into everyone's pocket. A woman's drinking while pregnant can cause far-reaching and costly problems for her developing baby. An externality is defined as the uncompensated impact of one person's actions on the well-being of a bystander. Drinking during pregnancy is a negative externality because the woman's action has detrimental effects on her unborn child that last a lifetime.
A Civilized Society
Teresa Kellerman
I cringe every time I see a newspaper or magazine report about the healthy benefits of drinking alcohol.
Alcohol and Thalidomide
Bruce Ritchie
One was banned because it caused birth defects. The other continues the mayhem.
Report from the Toronto Dept. of Public Health Proposal for An Alcohol Abuse Prevention Program. This report summarizes recent information on alcohol consumption and its effect on individuals and communities. It describes the variety of programs and activities underway and suggests a new approach and related initiatives to reduce alcohol consumption to a level of minimal risk.
Causes of Death in Canada Causes of Death 1992 (Minister of Industry, Science and Technology, Statistics Canada, Health Statistics Division, Sept. 1994); and, Method of Commiting Homicide Offences, Canadian the Provinces/Territories, 1992 (Minister of Industry, Science and Technology, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, 1992)
Indepth: Prohibition
A timeline of prohibition and liquor legislation in Canada

CBC News Online | June 30, 2005
1870s: Canada is in economic depression, but alcohol is a flourishing industry. Toronto has approximately one bar for every 150 residents and Montreal boasts a bar per 70 citizens. They sell Caribbean rum and locally brewed whisky for high profits. Drink becomes responsible for acts of disorderly conduct, and city jailhouses fill with people charges with intemperance, the act of excessive drinking. More ...

Putin urged to address "Russia's curse"
"The Lancet" medical journal

Wide availability of cheap vodkas and hard spirits is driving Russia's drinking problems.
Smoking, Drinking Work Together to Harm Brain

Both separately and in concert, smoking and drinking cause harm to the brain -- bad news for the majority of alcoholics who also smoke. Original article

Parenting, Advocacy & Behavior Management
Strategies, Not Solutions

This Adobe PDF format booklet is designed for caregivers and professionals who, in their everyday lives, encounter children and youth affected by Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Readers should be aware that this Booklet provides strategies and suggestions for people who already have a base understanding of FASD. If you would like more information on FASD, please visit www.region6fasd.ca.

Why can't they control their impulses?
Teresa Kellerman
Why can't they control their impulses? That is the part I don't understand. If they can understand why can't they control it. I don't understand.
Fact: John understands the rules
Fact: John understands the consequences.
Fact: John goes ahead and does it anyway (AGAIN).
Fact: John can later relate the exact rules and consequences.
Fact: Mom emits a long sigh.
Fact: John still cannot control his behaviors MUCH of the time.
 

Let's Talk FASD :Parent-Driven Strategies in Caring for Children and Adults with FASD.
(PDF format)

VON Canada Eastern Region is pleased to announce the release of Let's Talk FASD :Parent-Driven Strategies in Caring for Children and Adults with FASD. This resource is the result of a four-year project funded by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC)
Original document at
Keeping the family together Having a child with special needs is a constant, never-ending series of challenges - emotional, financial and physical, and the stress can easily overwhelm even the strongest and most positive individuals. There are a number of strategies that you can employ to help you cope with the never-ending roller coaster ride, which can help to preserve your relationship, make it stronger, and help keep your life in balance. Original article
Shadow Siblings
by Gail Rosenblum
Children growing up with siblings who have special needs share how those bonds sometimes scar, but more often enrich their lives.
You and I - Parents and Professionals
Dorothy Beckwith
This was written out of desperation by Dorthy Beckwith in '94 after a 4 week stay (by her daughter with FAS) in the Children's Psychiatric unit.
Low dose prenatal alcohol exposure linked to behavior problems

Maternal alcohol consumption even at low levels adversely related to child behavior. The effect was observed at average exposure levels as low as 1 drink per week.

Organicity of FASD Morse, Rathbun, Malbin

Worship With All of God’s Children
by Keith Ham

What could churches / religious organizations do to help families affected by FASD?
How do you teach abstract spiritual ideas to people with FASD?
What could churches / religious organizations do to help families affected by FASD? Original documents

Restaurants
When I go out to relax at a restaurant, I don't want to hear screaming, see running around etc. If I want to listen to kids I go to McDonalds. In a good restaurant I expect children to behave.
Mothers With Attitude - Behavior Plan A wonderful website by Terri Mauro on Parenting. Humor and help for adoptive moms, special-needs moms, any old moms at all. Excellent article on behavior plan for FASD FAS/FAE children. Their Home Page
How to Discipline Your Child
Katharine C. Kersey
Children come into this world helpless and unable to thrive without us. Our job is to love and nurture them and to teach them how to live. Discipline means "to teach and train". We need to be good disciplinarians, to acquire skills that will accomplish the goal we set for ourselves - that of helping the child learn to control and set standards for himself.
Avoiding Rages Many individuals with FASD have great difficulty controlling their temper. Lack of impulse control and inability to predict consequences can quickly escalate to a rage when they are frustrated about something. This article is from some notes taken from a discussion on weapons on the FASlink Forum.
Alternatives to Violence
When Marmaduke, the Great Dane, was brought for rescue adoption to my house he was sixteen months old with a history of having bitten three times. He had had his reasons. Violence usually has its reasons. But violence also has a heavy price tag. In the case of Marmaduke it almost cost him his life, and it did cost him his original home. Everyone had told the original owner that the Long Island dog would legally have to be put to sleep (executed). The owner, however, was certain there had to be an alternative. I was that alternative. Which is how and why, to avoid having to be executed, Marmaduke was brought to me in Connecticut.
What it's like to live with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD, ADHD)
by Edward M. Hallowell, M.D.
Attention Deficit Disorder. First of all I resent the term. As far as I'm concerned most people have Attention Surplus Disorder. I mean, life being what it is, who can pay attention to anything for very long?
Tips for living with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD, ADHD) by Edward M. Hallowell, M.D. and John J. Ratey, M.D. The most important step at the beginning of treatment is to instill hope once again. Individuals with ADD may have forgotten what is good about themselves.
ADD, Bipolar, RAD Characteristics Of Attention Deficit Disorder, Juvenile Onset Bipolar Disorder And Reactive Attachment Disorder
It’s Not Defiance—It’s ADD. Don’t assume that your child means to ignore you.
ADD - turning in assignments The problem: The student consistently neglects to hand in homework or long-term projects, even though she claims to have completed the work.
The reason: Children with AD/HD have difficulty keeping track of bits of information. They have a problem keeping track of paperwork.
ADDitude Snappy Comebacks to ADD Doubters
ADD - Homework Routines Consistent routines help replace meltdowns with mastery.

Conduct Disorder: A Challenge to Child Psychiatry

The 2 papers in this section review the etiology and treatment of conduct disorder (CD), one of the most common disorders in child psychiatry with an incidence of between 5.5% and 6.9% (1). Even with the best- known treatment, the success rate on follow-up does not exceed 74% (2). The failure in treatment often results in the adolescent becoming an adult with antisocial personality disorder (APD) and a criminal record. Youths with this disorder cause immense suffering to society because of their antisocial behaviour and the enormous costs associated with treatment, court procedures, probation, detention, and incarceration. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry - Home Page

Ontario Government funding programs for Children With Special Needs
Available online only - very comprehensive

This web page is intended to assist parents and caregivers seeking information about services funded and/or provided by the Ontario government for children with physical, intellectual and/or developmental disabilities, mental health disorders, medical problems or those who need specialized services to participate in daily living activities.

Girls Just Want To Be Mean
by Margaret Talbot

This article is not about FASD but is about parenting issues that apply to all children. Rosalind Wiseman is trying to protect “Wannabes” from “Queen Bees.” To that end, she has established the Empower Program, which is aided by the Girls’ Advisory Board. Are girls meaner than boys?

Medication
Medication The information is gathered from medical experts who have successfully treated children and adults with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), including Fetal Alcohol Syndrome(FAS) and Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) with or without other neurological disorders like obsessions, compulsions, aggression, that interfere with the person's ability to function in life. Behavior problems are due in part to imbalance of chemicals in the brain caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol.
Drug Interactions #1 Check out drug interactions, side effects, contraindications. Very useful site.
Drug Interactions #2 Check out drug interactions, side effects, contraindications. Very useful site.
Nutrition
Nutritional interventions can help your child with FASD
Diane Black, Ph.D.
d.black@planet.nl

This pamphlet is a summary of nutritional measures which have helped our three children with FASD over the past five years. None of these measures are new, indeed many of these ideas come from literature on alcoholism, autism, schizophrenia or other mental disorders. I am a biochemical researcher, not a physician, so I cannot give medical advice. If any of the ideas in this pamphlet seem applicable to your child, I encourage you to discuss them with your doctor, nutritionist, or naturopath.

Menu suggestion Gluten & Casein Intolerance:  THE GFCF Diet
Diane Black, Ph.D.
d.black@planet.nl

Main meals are quite easy, of course, with your basic meat, potatoes or rice, and vegetable, although you may need to adapt some recipes a bit for sauces, etc. The biggest problems we faced were breakfast and supper.

My Favorite Easy GFCF Recipes
Diane Black, Ph.D.
d.black@planet.nl

Get rice and tapioca flours at the Chinese store, potato starch flour in the baking section of any grocery store, chick-pea flour (labeled as gram flour or besan) at the middle-eastern or Indian store. Millet flour or flakes may be available at your health food store; otherwise buy millet and grind it in an electric coffee grinder. Sorghum flour (Jowar) from an Indian store can be used in place of millet.

"Formic Acid in the Drinking patient and the expectant mother"
The use of high levels of Folic Acid was found to inhibit brain damage.
Dr. Bhushan Kapur. Methanol in small amounts is present along with ethanol in beverage alcohol. The body's natural enzymes preferentially metabolize ethanol while methanol breaks down into highly neurotoxic Formic Acid. Use of high levels of Folic Acid was found to inhibit brain damage caused by the methanol. The use of Folic Acid during pregnancy has been recommended for several years to prevent neural tube defects. However, this study indicates that even higher levels of Folic Acid can be very benifical to the developing baby, particularly where alcohol exposure is a factor. Folic Acid is mandated as an additive to all flour sold in Canada. The debate has begun on its required addition to all beverage alcohol to help mitigate damage caused to both infants and adults.
Education
Teaching Students with FAS/FAE - A Resource Guide for Teachers
Authored by Julie Conry, Ph.D., R. Psych. for the B.C. Ministry of Education. Reproduced with permission of the British Columbia Ministry of Education. A very comprehensive guide with useful tools.

Eight Magic Keys: Developing Successful Interventions for Students With FAS

While there is no recommended “cookbook approach” to working with students with FAS, there are strategies that work, based on the following guidelines: - SAMHSA
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Center for Excellence
Teen Social Scene and IEP planning From the FASlink Discussion Forum
Teaching environment - Programs that worked or did not work Sally Caldwell
Educating students with FAS/FAE
A.P. Streissguth, D.M. Burgess
This article describes the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on children and young adults and make suggestions for educational programs.

IEP and Inclusion Tips for Parents and Teachers
(4 MB PDF download - 82 printed pages)
Anne I. Eason, Esq. and Kathleen Whitbread, Ph.D.

This manual provides parents with systematic strategies they can use to become more active participants in the Individualized Education Plan (IEP) process and contribute to the development of a meaningful educational program for their sons and daughters. The strategies delineated in this manual are not expensive nor do they require that parents obtain degrees in education or advocacy in order to be effective. The strategies offer common sense approaches as to how to effectively advocate for inclusive education for their sons and daughters with disabilities.

10 Things The Student with Autism Wishes You Knew
(Editor's note: applies to FASD too).

By Ellen Notbohm - This should be required reading for all social service workers, teachers and relatives of children with autism. There is great need to understand the world as special needs children experience it. So the voice of our child returns now to tell us what children with autism wish their teachers knew.

A Positive Look at Learning Characteristics Sally Caldwell
Active Learning: Bridging the Gap for FASD children Debbie Evenson
Professionals and the public in Alaska are deeply concerned about the educational implication of prenatally alcohol/drug exposed children.
Helpful hints when working with alcohol effected (AE) students Adapted for AE students by Spira and Evensen from O'Neal and Moreno Tips for Teaching High Functioning Persons with Autism
FAE Student Checklist - D.Spira, D.Evensen, Ann Pytkowicz Streissguth Ph.D.

Helpful hints when working with AE Students

Learning Disabilities Glossary Jean Lokerson
General Special Education Websites

Extensive list of Special Education websites

Justice System

FASD and the Youth Criminal Justice System - A discussion paper - by Paul Verbrugge


Legal issues related to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) have been explored recently by a number of authors. [1] This discussion paper canvases issues specifically related to FASD and the youth criminal justice system. Where available, court decisions that have addressed these issues are reviewed. Issues are explored under six subject headings: (I) the FASD construct; (II) fitness to stand trial; (III) criminal intent; (IV) proportionality of youth court outcomes; (V) sentencing; and (VI) bridging with social services.
Original URL
FAS in Juvenile Court
Dr. Kathleen Page
This article discusses the basics of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAS/E): the history, nature, prevalence, causes and effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol.  Some of the unique features of FAS/E are explored, particularly those that make it so hard to spot and those that predispose people to nonproductive or criminal activity.  The presentation of FASD in Juvenile Court is discussed and put in the context of the multiplicity of factors pertaining to delinquency; finally, innovative interventions, approaches and resources are laid out.  Issues surrounding FASD as they appear in Family Court are then explored, with emphasis on the intergenerational transmission of this array of conditions and how we might interrupt such transmission.

Youth Criminal Justice Act - Canada

“young person” means a person who is or, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, appears to be twelve years old or older, but less than eighteen years old and, if the context requires, includes any person who is charged under this Act with having committed an offence while he or she was a young person or who is found guilty of an offence under this Act. Original URL
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees the rights and freedoms set out in it subject only to such reasonable limits prescribed by law as can be demonstrably justified in a free and democratic society.

Criminal Code of Canada
This Act may be cited as the Criminal Code. R.S., c. C-34, s. 1.
Large file 5.2 MB    Original URL
Canadian Case Law Database
The Canadian Legal Information Institute provides a database of Case Law determined by decisions of federal, provincial and territorial courts, tribunals, boards and panels. Available online only.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Implications for Correctional Service
FAS/FAE individuals are definitely at increased risk for coming in contact with the criminal justice system and as medical personal become more aware of FAS/FAE the availability of an early diagnosis is more likely. It is likely that cases of FAS/FAE continue to enter the prison system unrecognized. Correctional Service Canada might consider developing a practical screening instrument for identifying suspected cases of FAS/FAE early in the incarceration process or acquiring such an instrument if one becomes available elsewhere.

Medical Information Card 

Canada - PDF format
U.S.A. - PDF format

These materials cover suggestions for how an individual with FAS/FAE should handle interactions with the police. Here is a link relating to a card which an individual with FAS/FAE can present to the police explaining his or her disability, as well as a general guide for dealing with the police.

Mistakes I have Made with FAS clients
David Boulding
A Lawyer's personal remarks. by David Boulding "My remarks are personal and tentative - there are probably more mistakes I have made. Perhaps I am unaware of them or perhaps I choose to remain unaware. It is embarrassing to admit. I encourage you to tell me what your experience has been with lawyers' mistakes because you can help me learn from my mistakes."

Fetal Alcohol & the Law - Part 1
David Boulding

 

 

David Boulding is a former criminal court lawyer who travels around the world to speak about Fetal Alcohol and the Law. This is the first in a series of educational videos about Fetal Alcohol.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: You and Your Child’s Lawyer
David Boulding
These few sentences are intended for parents and caregivers of persons with the brain based birth defect often called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Social services staff, probation officers, teachers, and like minded folks might also find some comfort here. I have some 15 years experience as a Canadian criminal lawyer, both prosecution and defence. Like many lawyers I have made many mistakes as a lawyer when dealing with clients with fetal alcohol issues, and I intend here to suggest ways you and your lawyer can avoid some of the mistakes I have made.
Competency and Capacity
Teresa Kellerman
When a young person with FASD (Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder) commits a crime and ends up in the criminal justice system, the family often learns the meaning of new terms, like "competent to stand trial" and "diminished capacity." In criminal law, competency is defined as being "sufficiently mentally able to stand trial, if he/she understands the proceedings and can rationally deal with his/her lawyer."

Offender Profiles
National Crime Prevention Council

This article has been included because the behaviour patterns of many FAS / FAE children / adults bring them into conflict with the law. Perhaps the judicial system needs to find a more appropriate response to individuals with these disabilities. Our thanks to the National Crime Prevention Council for their work in this area. Original URL of "Offender Profiles"     National Crime Prevention Council's Home Page

Harsher punishments for offenders not answer to Canada's Crime Problem
Mennonite Central Committee - If harsher punishment worked, the U.S. would lead the world in crime reduction

Canadian Justice Statistics
Available online only - very comprehensive

Justice
  Correctional services
  Courts
  Crimes and offences
  Legal aid
  Offenders
  Police services

Canadian Youth court statistics 2002/3


The youth court caseload in Canada has been declining over the past decade, consistent with a decrease in charges laid by police, according to data from the Youth Court Survey.

Youth courts heard 84,592 cases during the 2002/03 fiscal year, 1% fewer than in 2001/02, and 20% fewer than in 1991/92 (the first year for which complete national data coverage was available for the Youth Court Survey).

Canadian Justice Spending
Canada spends more than $11 Billion annually on Justice - Police, Adult corrections,
Courts, Legal aid plans, Prosecutions, and Youth corrections.
FASD Law Enforcement Fact Sheet
Compiled by Teresa Kellerman, Director, FAS Community Resource Center, Tucson, AZ
Fact Sheet for Personnel in Law Enforcement

FASD in the Court System
Comprehensive listing to online articles
Teresa Kellerman
www.fasstar.com
Originals

 

Many individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) have been in trouble with the law, as indicated by research and as families learn from experience. Ann Streissguth's recent long-term study of secondary disabilities reveals that of the 415 individuals with FASD who completed the study, 60% of the adolescents and adults have been in trouble with the law for various crimes, ranging from shoplifting to domestic violence. Trouble with abusing alcohol and other drugs is another common problem in this group of individuals. In the same study, Streissguth's research indicates that 50% of the men and 70% of the women with FASD have problems with alcohol or other drugs.

Extensive U.S.A. legal articles and resources

 

Articles on Legal Issues
Fetal Alcohol And Drug Unit

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
University of Washington School of Medicine
&
University of Washington School of Law

Attaining Human Rights, Civil Rights, and Criminal Justice for People with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome; by Ann Streissguth, and published in TASH Newsletter, Sept. 1998. Reprinted by permission of TASH. For more information on the work of TASH, visit www.tash.org.

The Criminalization of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS); by Caron Byrne, revised 2002.

Developing Successful Interventions for Clients with FAS or ARND; a flyer created by the Fetal Alcohol and Drug Unit and sponsored by March of Dimes (2002). It explains about the brain damage prenatal alcohol exposure causes, the behaviors that happen because of that exposure, and shares helpful strategies when treating clients with FAS or ARND.

Ethics questions raised by the neuropsychiatric, neuropsychological, educational, developmental, and family characteristics of 18 juveniles awaiting execution in Texas; by Dorothy Otnow Lewis, Catherine A. Yeager, Pamela Blake, Barbara Bard, and Maren Strenziok, and published in The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, Volume 32, Number 4, 2004.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: An Effective Capital Defense; by Denise Ferry, and published in the California Attorneys for Criminal Justice, Forum 1997.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Implications for Sentencing in the Criminal Justice System; by Robin A. LaDue and Tom Dunne, and published in The FEN Pen, Fall 1996.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Implications for Sentencing in the Criminal Justice System Part II; by Robin A. LaDue and Tom Dunne, and published in The FEN Pen, Spring 1997.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD): A Need for Closer Examination by the Criminal Justice System; by Timothy E. Moore, and published in Criminal Reports, July 2004.

FAS: Preventing and Treating Sexual Deviancy; by Natalie Novick and published in The Challenge of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Overcoming Secondary Disabilities, 1997.

FAS and the Social Security Disability Process: Navigating the System; by Peter H.D. McKee and published in The Challenge of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Overcoming Secondary Disabilities, 1997.

The Judges' Page Newsletter, February 2005.
The Importance of Early Identification of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD); by Kathryn Kelly

Issues in the Legal Realm: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and the Decision to Decline or Retain; by Robin A. LaDue and Tom Dunne, and published in The FEN Pen, Spring 1996.

Legal Issues and the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome; by Robin A. LaDue and Tom Dunne, and published in The FEN Pen, Fall 1995.

Mistakes I have made with FAS Clients; by David Boulding. A defense attorney describes his experiences representing clients with FAS/FAE.

Project sheds light on disability born of alcohol; Afflicted at risk of trouble with the legal system, by Tracy Johnson. Seattle Post-Intelligencer; April 5, 2005.

Representing the Congnitively Disabled Client in a Criminal Case by Jeanice Dagher-Margosian 2005.

Suggestions for More User-Friendly Court Hearings; by the Hon. Michael I. Jeffery, Presiding Superior Court Judge, Second Judicial District, Borrow, Alaska. Suggestions for accommodations in the courtroom for individuals disabled by FAS/FAE or with cultural differences or language barriers. Additionally, Judge Jeffery has simplified his routine court documents to foster a clearer understanding of court procedures and the commitments which are entered into by those who appear before him.

The Victimization of Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects; by Kathryn Kelly and published in TASH Connections, August/September 2003.

Ethical Considerations of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Truths and Consequences
by Laura Niles Wilhelm
Ethical issues to be regarded with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder focus on
various aspects. What are individual and autonomous rights? What is termed abuse? What is the end result of alcohol use during pregnancy? How is this information to be effectively and compassionately used? Ethics involves what is right and what is wrong in human behavior. There are “oughts” and “ought nots” in action. Ethics also involves dilemmas and what, if any, actions are an individual’s or society’s duties in rectifying these dilemmas? How can the intent of goodwill be used? What obligation does the scientific community or educational institutions have to educate or inform the public? Do ethical values translate into legislation?
Crime Times has a number of articles on issues relating to FAS/FAE. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAS/FAE)
Abnormalities in corpus callosum [Vol. 10 No. 1 ]
Abused drugs/alcohol [Vol. 3 No. 1 ]
Behavioral problems [Vol. 1 No. 1 ]
Cheating [Vol. 1 No. 1 ] [Vol. 3 No. 1 ]
Choline may help, memory enhancement, hippocampus [Vol. 7 No. 2 ]
Criminal behavior [Vol. 6 No. 1 ] [Vol. 1 No. 1 ] [Vol. 3 No. 1 ]
Damage to frontal lobe [Vol. 4 No. 4 ]
Delinquency, attention problems [Vol. 6 No. 4 ]
Maternal drinking and delinquency
Destroys brain cells, leads to mental retardation [Vol. 6 No. 2 ]
Drug/alcohol problems [Vol. 10 No. 4 ]
Effects neurotransmitters--glutamate GABA [Vol. 6 No. 2 ]
Higher risk for criminal conviction, disruptive schooling [Vol. 10 No. 4 ]
Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment helpful [Vol. 11 No. 4 ]
Impulsivity [Vol. 1 No. 1 ] [Vol. 3 No. 1 ]
Inappropriate sexual behavior [Vol. 10 No. 4 ] [Vol. 3 No. 1 ]
Learning Disabilties [Vol. 1 No. 1 ]
Low I.Q. [Vol. 1 No. 1 ]
Lying [Vol. 3 No. 1 ]
Mental retardation [Vol. 1 No. 1 ]
Murderers [Vol. 1 No. 4 ]
Quote, Teresa Kellerman [Vol. 8 No. 3 ]
Social deficits [Vol. 5 No. 1 ]
Stealing [Vol. 1 No. 1 ]
Young offenders [Vol. 5 No. 2 ]
Original source URL
Legal
Federal Judge Rules That Asperger's Syndrome Is A Disability

A York County girl who suffers from Asperger's syndrome is entitled to special education services even though she completes her homework, behaves well in class and scores well on tests, a federal judge ruled. Ruling has implications for FASD as well.

Fetal Rights: Chronology of Court Cases

1995 A civil action (Dobson vs. Dobson) is launched on behalf of Ryan Dobson by Gerald Price, his maternal grandfather and guardian. The action is against the boy's mother for prenatal injuries sustained by the boy as a fetus. Cynthia Dobson of Moncton, N.B., was 27 weeks pregnant when her car collided with a pickup truck in a near fatal accident in 1993. Doctors performed an emergency caesarean section. Born three months premature, Ryan has serious physical and mental impairments, including cerebral palsy. Gerald Price wants to win damages from Dobson's insurance company for Ryan's care. (i)

A child cannot sue for damages in utero

1969 Bill C-150 Canada abortion law passes. The homicide definition is amended so that homicide only takes place if a child dies "after becoming a human being". Becoming a human being is defined as having the umbilical cord severed, having independent circulation, or having had breathed. In 1988, the abortion law was struck down by Supreme Court but the definition of becoming a human being remains.

The Supreme Court of Canada rules in Dobson v Dobson that courts should not impose a legal obligation on pregnant mothers to provide certain conditions for her child. The court states, "First and foremost, for reasons of public policy, the Court should not impose a duty of care upon a pregnant woman towards her foetus or subsequently born child. To do so would result in very extensive and unacceptable intrusions into the bodily integrity, privacy and autonomy rights of women."

Alberta kids can sue for fetal injuries
New legislation targets mothers in auto crashes

Alberta kids can sue for fetal injuries. New legislation targets mothers in auto crashes. In a Canadian first, the Alberta government will introduce legislation this month to allow children to sue their mothers for automobile crash injuries they suffer while still in the womb. The legislation is sure to raise questions about the rights of women and the fetus, and worries that it will open the door for mothers to someday be sued for other activities they pursue while pregnant, such as alcohol consumption or high-exertion sports.

Canadian Native Law Cases

While there are distinct differences between Native tribes in Canada, the tribes have had similar experiences politically and historically. The balance of retaining traditional values while adjusting to non-indigenous ways of life has been a difficult endeavor for Native tribes. Law cases on Canadian Natives indicate the task is just as problematic for the non-indigenous to determine how indigenous people should be tried in a court of law. Native law cases involve additional issues like treaty interpretations, Aboriginal women's rights, leadership and self-government, and especially land rights.

Law cases are dependent on the numerous treaties throughout Canada's history.

Articles Needed Wills
Discretionary Trusts
Power of Attorney
Guardianship
Adults With FASD
The TRIUMF Project The TRIUMF Project is a proposed series of multi-disciplinary diagnostic / training clinics, and self-sustaining residential village / farm / campground / rehab and conference centres specializing in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Static Encephalopathy.

Independent Living for People with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

Most adults with FASD will need more help than others to meet the more routine demands of work and home. The kinds of services and the degree of help needed may vary. Areas where assistance may be important include employment, money management, housing, and social skills. Many require close supervision to help them make day-to-day decisions and stay safe. - SAMHSA
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Center for Excellence

Personal FASD stories 

"I don't want to die" The Christopher Surbey Story

On Monday, June 6, 2005 we lost another one of our special children. Christopher Surbey (Age 17, FAS) was brutally stabbed to death in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Chris required close supervision due to his poor judgment and his inability to avoid risky situations. However, the residential placement provided for Chris only allowed for daytime supervision. His parents pleaded with the agency to supervise him at night as well, as he is at highest risk during the evening hours, when he would go out alone into the community. His adopted mother, Val Surbey, was the founder of FASlink in 1995. We are profoundly affected as in many ways we helped raise Chris over the years through the FASlink global family. He was our child too and also embodies the concerns we have for our own children at home. Who will be next?
Stephen Neafcy Diagnosed at age 43 with FAE, Fetal Alcohol Effects, Stephen (now age 50) provides insight into some of the difficulties of growing up with undiagnosed FASD. Stephen has found his niche in the world as one of FASlink's key researchers.
Birth Moms - A Personal Perspective

When people say unkind things about birth moms who have children with FASD, it is usually out of ignorance of the nature of addictions, frustration about the unnecessary injury to a child and/or a feeling of helplessness. Addicted birth moms are also victims of the beverage alcohol industry. The cost to us all is astronomical and the beverage alcohol industry pays less far less than 1% of the total damages caused by their products.

Self-forgiveness
Mercedes Alejandro

Forgiveness is learned early in life when, as children our parents overlook an offense or forgive our breaking an expensive or beloved object. They are the first to teach us how it feels to receive loving forgiveness and unconditional acceptance from those we hold dearest.
Poems and letters Poems and letters on FASD
Resources
FASlink PowerPoint FASD Presentation

FASD presentation by Bruce Ritchie. If you have the PowerPoint Viewer on your computer, simply click on Open in the next screen. If not, you can
Download PowerPoint 2007 Viewer (Works with Windows 2000, XP and Vista)

Strategies, Not Solutions

This Adobe PDF format booklet is designed for caregivers and professionals who, in their everyday lives, encounter children and youth affected by Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Readers should be aware that this Booklet provides strategies and suggestions for people who already have a base understanding of FASD. If you would like more information on FASD, please visit www.region6fasd.ca.

FASlink presentation, Bill 118 - Disabilities Act
     PDF format

     High Speed streaming video- WMV format
     Dial-up streaming video - WMV format
FASlink presentation to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, Standing Committee on Social Policy regarding Bill 118, Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act, 2004
London, February 3, 2005

CCSA - Canadian Database of FASD Resources

The PDF copy of the 2005 Directory is at www.faslink.org/ccsa Directory 2005.pdf
CCSA FASD Home Page

The original URL


NOFAS National Directory of Professionals
Online Only
NOFAS - National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome - National Directory of Professionals, Treatment Centers and Support Groups for the United States

Ontario Government funding programs for Children With Special Needs
Available online only - very comprehensive

This web page is intended to assist parents and caregivers seeking information about services funded and/or provided by the Ontario government for children with physical, intellectual and/or developmental disabilities, mental health disorders, medical problems or those who need specialized services to participate in daily living activities.


Guide to Government of Canada Services for People with Disabilities (HTML - view online)

Printable booklet (PDF file)

About 3.6 million Canadians have one or more disabilities. That's more than one in every eight Canadians. This guide about Government of Canada services and programs for people with disabilities provides information on everything from employment, accessibility and education, to health, income support and tax benefits. A section tells you how to contact your provincial or territorial government to find out about its programs and services for people with disabilities.
US
                                  flag

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Social Security Disability Benefits USA

http://bit.ly/1blQqNM

by Molly Clarke at mac@ssd-help.org

If your child has FASD and you find that you can no longer support them financially, he or she may be eligible for Social Security Disability benefits.  The following article is intended to provide a general overview of Social Security Disability benefits and to prepare families for the application process.
Neurodevelopmental Impact of FASD and Mental Health Implications. PDF presentation.

Expanding understanding of the relationship of FASD and mental health creates more realistic expectations for the children. Realistic expectations change our behaviors toward children. Provide a framework for interventions. Southwest Michigan Children's Trauma Assessment Center

Miscellaneous

FASD Stakeholders of Ontario Newsletter

Original link to this article

This newsletter was developed by FASD Stakeholders for Ontario to provide information that will help people in Ontario work together to address FASD. The newsletter reports on the activities of FASD Stakeholders for Ontario, and shares other news of relevance to individuals, caregivers and service providers in Ontario who are working in the area of FASD. The newsletter includes information about upcoming training events, new resources, community activities etc.

Measuring Health In Canada


General Indicators of Life Expectancy and Mortality
The health of a population is determined by many factors, and only partly the result of government actions. Nevertheless, information on government programs affecting health can be better interpreted when placed in the context of the overall health status of Canadians.

Copyright Comment The original material on this website has either been authored by Bruce Ritchie or reproduced with the explicit or implied permission of the authors or has been published freely in an unrestricted public forum on the Internet by the authors. All browser software makes a permanent copy on the visitor's computer of each web page visited. By placing a work on the Internet for without-charge access, the author has automatically given implied permission for that work to be copied to any and all of the hundreds of millions of computers worldwide that have access to the Internet. Under Canadian Copyright law this implied permission to make copies does not affect the copyright owner's property rights but does give permission to make further copies.
Links to more information